Course Catalog

Account Based Marketing (Half Day)
The goal of this workshop is to show you (and your team) how to create an ABM strategy that can truly impact your company and help to drive better ROI. Led by a growth mentor from the Techstars startup accelerator program, this workshop guides you through an optimal ABM strategy, from understanding the right stakeholders and user personas for targeting to rolling out a system that collects data to create a unique and compelling marketing strategy for an account.

Achieving Breakthrough Results with Word of Mouth Marketing (Full Day)
Through first-hand experiences, case studies, and hands-on exercises, you have the opportunity to learn relevant and applicable skills that will enable you to better break-through the noise of our competitive world by leveraging the power of human recommendations.

Advertising Production Masterclass (Full Day)
This workshop will teach you best practices and clarify your own role and responsibilities in the content production process (TV/video, photography, OOH, digital/social, etc.). Along the way, you will see what works, and you will improve your ability to develop better content integration.

Advertising Production Masterclass (Regional Full Day)
This workshop will teach you best practices and clarify your own role and responsibilities in the content production process (TV/video, photography, OOH, digital/social, etc.). Along the way, you will see what works, and you will improve your ability to develop better content integration. This workshop also provides learning on the unique nuances and challenges of producing content for social platforms.

Agency Review Essentials (Half Day)
This workshop will equip marketers with the skills and best practices to conduct a review that is highly likely to result in a positive, long term agency relationship. It will help you avoid pitfalls that can waste time for both the marketer as well as the participating agencies.

Agile Digital Marketing (Full Day)
This workshop helps you to utilize a simple process and structure for implementing an “agile startup” mindset and process into your existing workflow. You’ll walk away from this workshop with the right tools and resources to more quickly achieve your growth objectives.

Agile Marketing for Marketers (Full Day)
Our workshop will explain the principles, processes, and tools that make up Agile marketing and how to tailor them to work within your organization. Agile marketing places a premium on team communication, customer collaboration, and the willingness to make changes throughout the process.

Agile Marketing for Marketers (Half Day)
Enabling successful collaboration within an organization is at the forefront of our Agile Marketing for Marketers workshop. This workshop will walk you through step-by-step on how Agile marketing can help you and your team get more done, quickly adapt to change, and do all this, better, smarter, and faster!

Aligning Marketing to Sales (Regional Full Day)
In this workshop, participants will learn that successful coordination and alignment between Marketing and Sales requires coordination on objectives, strategies, activities, and goals. Through the use of discussions and exercises, this workshop will help you apply critical thinking to identify and remove alignment issues in your organization and to discover practical and actionable solutions.

B to B Customer Centric Marketing and Activation (Full Day)
Led by a former CEO of several divisions of a Fortune 200 B to B company, this workshop shows you how to be a customer centric organization; you will gain an understanding of the frameworks and techniques needed to execute B to B consumer-centric strategies.

B to B High Impact Digital Demand Generation (Full Day)
In this workshop, Harry J. Gold, CEO of Overdrive Interactive, will walk through the practical steps, tactics, core technologies and best practices that organizations need to successfully launch a demand generation program that delivers the full power of the digital marketplace.

B to B High Impact Digital Demand Generation (Half Day)
In this workshop, Harry J. Gold, CEO of Overdrive Interactive, will walk through the practical steps, tactics, core technologies and best practices that organizations need to successfully launch a demand generation program that delivers the full power of the digital marketplace.

B to C Aligning Marketing to Sales (Half Day)
In this workshop, you will learn that coordination and alignment between marketing and sales requires more than just tacking marketing communications onto the front end of an existing sales process. You will learn how to coordinate marketing and sales objectives, strategies, activities, and goals.

B to C Customer Centric Marketing and Activation (Full Day)
Led by a former CEO of several divisions of a Fortune 200 company, this workshop shows you how to be a consumer-centric organization; you will gain an understanding of the frameworks and techniques needed to execute B to C consumer-centric strategies.

Behind the Numbers: Applying Context to Digital Data & Creating Effective Reports (Half Day)
In this workshop, participants will learn how to apply analytics and develop metrics to track different channels, such as paid search and email campaigns.

Brand Activations that Drive Results (Half Day)
During this half day workshop, you will learn about some of the most essential and effective methods of bringing your brand to life and delighting your consumers. These include Promotions, Experiences, Events, Sponsorships and Influencer Marketing.

Brand Building with Customer Insights (Half Day)
This workshop will help you understand your customers better in order to improve your brand’s relevancy. It breaks down the key components of brand building in a way that will engage you, build your knowledge, and reveal practical insights and initiatives that you can use to build your brand and bottom line.

Brand Building with Positioning and Activation (Half Day)
This workshop will help you to build brand assets that align with your customers’ needs and that will help establish a unique and own-able position in the marketplace. It breaks down the key components of brand building in a way that will engage you, build your knowledge, and reveal practical insights and initiatives that you can use to build your brand and bottom line.

Brand Storytelling and Effective Digital Consumer Connection (Full Day)
This workshop focuses on providing the frameworks, insights, and best practices that will help you to optimize your brand storytelling. You will learn the key elements of storytelling and how digital technologies have influenced the manner in which a story needs to be told today. This workshop will also show you how to use buyer personas to make your stories inspiring.

Briefing for Success (Half Day)
This workshop gives you vital skills to write or assess the creative brief, depending on your role in the process. You will learn how to assess and provide effective feedback to the agency’s creative brief before creative goes into production.

Briefing for Success (Regional Half Day)
This workshop will help you get the kind of powerful creative work that builds your sales overnight and builds your brand over time. This workshop guides you through what makes effective communications, creative brief best practices, and how to provide compelling, effective feedback to creative.

Bringing Your Brand to Life (Full Day)
During this workshop, you will utilize an Activation Planner to build an activation plan that you can take back to your organization and implement. The program will cover the key platforms for activating your brand - Promotions, Brand Experiences and Events, Sponsorships, Influencer Marketing, Cause Marketing, Activating through Intermediaries, Branded Content, and Measurement.

Building Differentiation Through Your Customer Experience Design (Full Day)
In a world where commoditization is the norm, differentiation is key. The kind of differentiation customers will notice doesn’t come from what you say, it comes more from what you do. Customer Experience is a new discipline that helps you figure out what to differentiate and how to do it in a way that benefits your customers and your bottom line at the same time.

Building Teams that Drive Growth (Full Day)
This workshop will help you understand different working styles and how to communicate effectively with your teammates. You will learn how to eliminate role confusion through responsibility charting, how to overcome barriers to collaboration, and best practices for conflict resolution. This workshop provides pragmatic, actionable tools, processes, checklists and frameworks to help your team together more effectively.

Comprehensive CRM and Database Marketing (Two Day)
As a marketer, there is nothing more important than the customer and their interaction with your product or service. Database marketing is at the core of all customer relationship management (CRM) efforts. Whether you have CRM / Database Marketing in your title or you are just trying to figure out how to better work with your marketing team to achieve business goals, this course is for you.

Content Marketing Mastery Program
The ANA Marketing Training & Development Center’s Mastery Programs will help advance your marketing teams in key disciplines by fulfilling strategic needs, sharpening skills, and putting ideas to work immediately.

Critical Thinking for Marketing Success (Half Day)
Critical Thinking for Marketing Success is a half-day course that enables participants to interact with and use critical thinking tools that improve performance and accelerate desired marketing results.

Customer Insights (Regional Two Day)
This course will cover the core areas of customer insight allowing attendees to go beyond raw data and research to know how to create and apply a multi-dimensional view of their customer, and develop an understanding of what drives consumer purchase and postpurchase decisions, and how they affect long-term brand decisions. Included are strategies for understanding the full customer journey and begin to outline how to be actionable with customer insights.

Developing a Brand Portfolio and Architecture Strategy (Full Day)
This workshop will help you determine your brand portfolio as well as your architecture strategy. You will first learn how to establish a long-term strategy that utilizes brand assets and optimizes internal resources and maximizes impact. Then, you will learn about how to organize and use different types of brands and brand elements, how to effectively migrate your current portfolio, and how to express your brand portfolio in a cohesive and relevant way to maximize impact.

Developing a Brand Portfolio Strategy (Half Day)
This workshop will help you determine your brand portfolio strategy. You will learn how to establish a long-term strategy for utilizing brand assets in a way that optimizes internal resources and maximizes impact on your chosen markets.

Developing a Digital Analytics Strategy (Half Day)
In this workshop, we will focus on developing your approach to marketing analytics. The course will cover analytics terminology, customization settings (for your business), data collection, segmentation, and a practical (deeper) understanding of Key Performance Indicators (KPI’s) for your campaigns.

Digital CRM & Customer Insights (Two Day)
Through data, we understand who our customers are, how to reach them and how to keep them. This workshop will cover the various types of data available, how to mine it for the best results across all platforms and channels, and how to apply this data to every point along the customer journey.

Digital Marketing (Regional Half Day)
This workshop will walk participants through the practical steps and best practices organizations need in order to successfully launch a digital marketing platform that delivers on the power of the web. Participants will use real case studies and engage in strategy and tactical development exercises that will result in plans and ideas they can start using right away.

Digital Marketing Analytics Mastery Program
The ANA Marketing Training & Development Center’s Mastery Programs will help advance your marketing teams in key disciplines by fulfilling strategic needs, sharpening skills, and putting ideas to work immediately.

Digital Metrics that Matter (Half Day)
The goal of this workshop is to show you (and your team) how to make data driven decisions by measuring the digital metrics that can truly impact your company and help to drive better marketing ROI. Led by a growth mentor from the Techstars startup accelerator program, this workshop guides you through the “One Metric That Matters” process, from understanding the right Key Performance Indicators (“KPIs”) for your business model and lifecycle to rolling out the data-driven measurement structure that gets your entire team aligned around how to drive business results.

Direct Marketing Institute (Regional Three Day)
In just three days, this bootcamp-style workshop will teach you what would normally take you years to learn on-the-job. Experienced faculty cover the core areas of direct marketing, from offers and propositions to copywriting and design—across digital, direct, and integrated marketing—all designed to get you thinking from a direct response perspective, with detailed examples and step-by-step applications throughout. You’ll come away with a firm grasp of direct marketing’s best practices and the practical strategies needed to implement them successfully.

Driving Growth with Measurement (Regional Full Day)
Despite years of ever-increasing emphasis on the importance of measurement, marketers still struggle to get it right. Marketing departments lack transparency and accountability. This workshop address these issues and will help you and your team to understand marketing data, measurement and analytics, the optimization of marketing spending, connecting marketing to revenue, and how to become more proficient at driving growth through analytics.

Effective Business Strategy (Regional Half Day)
This open enrollment workshop, open to all ANA members, is designed to help you understand the ingredients of a credible and competitive business strategy. This workshop provides you with a proven framework that illustrates how best-in-class companies apply business-centric principles to build a competitive advantage.

Effective Writing for Corporate Communications (Full Day)
We’ll address it all. You’ll learn about different styles and voices, dive into “speaking like your audience,” and explore the internal approval process that impacts the way you get approvals for this—or any—audience. You’ll see actual examples of how major corporations are addressing these issues and moving their communications to a more customer-friendly voice.

Effective Writing for Corporate Communications (Half Day)
This is a deep topic so this workshop covers the essentials. You will learn about the key aspects you need to know to develop effective corporate communications, including writing styles and voice, speaking like your audience, a best in class approval process, and more. This workshop is an excerpt of the ANA full day workshop “Effective Writing for Corporate Communications”

Effectively Manage your Social Media and Content Production (Half Day)
Led by an experienced expert in social media production, this engaging workshop includes discussions, interactive group activities, and case studies all designed to increase your social IQ.

Elevate Your Marketing Mix and Attribution Modeling (Half Day)
This workshop will demystify the ROI modeling process and provide practical guidance. You will walk away feeling empowered to use modeling to improve advertising performance. With a solid understanding of the modeling landscape and best practices, you will become a better consumer of modeling services.

End-to-End Digital Marketing (Full Day)
Join us for a workshop where Harry J. Gold, CEO of Overdrive Interactive, will walk through the practical steps and best practices that organizations need to master to successfully launch a digital marketing platform that delivers the full power of the web.

End-to-End Digital Marketing (Half Day)
Join us for a workshop where Harry J. Gold, CEO of Overdrive Interactive, will walk through the practical steps and best practices that organizations need to master to successfully launch a digital marketing platform that delivers the full power of the web.

Effective Agency Management (Full Day)
As a participant of this workshop, you will walk away with tangible ideas, best practices and tools to inspire your agency to do their best work …and ultimately, make you a far more successful marketer and well-respected client. Led by one of the leading world experts on agency management, this engaging, interactive workshop is packed with hands-on exercises, case studies, anecdotal stories, fun videos and opportunities to share as a group. Throughout this session, you will discover what makes a better client and how to get the quality work you deserve.

End to End Highly Effective Agency Management (Full Day)
This workshop will provide you and your team with the frameworks, best practices and tools you need to inspire your agency to develop great work. It will also teach you the principles of working with your agency partners in order to ensure your processes are streamlined and cost effective.

Essentials of Highly Effective Agency Management (Half Day)
This workshop will provide you and your team with the frameworks, best practices and tools you need to inspire your agency to develop great work. It will also teach you the principles of working with your agency partners in order to ensure your processes are streamlined and cost effective.

Fast Forward Your Content Marketing (Regional Full Day)
Learn 7 best practices to fast-forward your content marketing program. In this hands-on workshop, you learn how to make content marketing even more effective by addressing 7 critical elements

Fast-Forward Your Content Marketing 101 (Half Day)
Learn best practices to build a solid, strategic framework for your content marketing. During this hands-on workshop, you’ll create a framework to make your content marketing even more strategic and effective.

Fast-Forward Your Content Marketing 201 (Half Day)
Build your content marketing framework with best practices on buyer persona research, mapping content to the buyers’ journey and using measurement to improve results. In this hands-on workshop, you will learn how to make content marketing even more effective by addressing these 3 critical elements.

Fast-Forward Your Content Marketing 301 (Half Day)
You’ve done the basics to create your content marketing program – with a written mission, strategy, message, research, competitive awareness and metrics. Now learn 3 ways to optimize your content marketing.

Fast-Forward Your Content Marketing 401 (Half Day)
You’ve created your content marketing program – with a written mission, strategy, message, research, competitive awareness and metrics. You’ve measured and optimized existing content, built a content base and differentiated it from competitors. Now learn 3 ways to maximize your content marketing.

From Insights to a Great Marketing Mix (Full Day)
This workshop enables you to develop a breakthrough Marketing Mix based on real Consumer Insights. Specifically, we live in an “Age of Sameness”. All marketers have access to identical quantitative research. What differentiates World-Class Marketers is a real Target Insight. In fact, Insights are critical to great Marketing. Yet, they are often misunderstood, misapplied. Further, Insights play a critical role in all Marketing Mix elements.

From Insights to Great Messaging (Half Day)
Program participants learn a clear, direct Insight definition, how to differentiate real from “faux” insights, how Insights are discovered through a detailed understanding of our Target Audience, how creative “Ideas” are based on Insights, how to assess, comment, and coach creative work to reinforce unique Consumer Insights.

Get it Write! How to Communicate Effectively With All Your Business Audiences (Regional Full Day)
We’ll address it all. From classic corporate communications to the newspeak to ways you can move your business forward without alienating your existing customers or your management team. We’ll take what you already know and give you additional tools to stay in tune with your customers and markets.

Harnessing the Power of Programmatic (Half Day)
Are you among the marketers not fully leveraging the benefits of the growing area of programmatic? During this highly interactive workshop you will overcome hurdles as we demystify how programmatic works and help you develop a roadmap that will allow you to make programmatic work for your organization.

How to Develop a Focused and Effective Business Strategy (Full Day)
This workshop will provide you with a proven framework that illustrates how best in class companies apply business-centric principles to build a competitive advantage. The workshop is full of exercises that will show you how to apply the ingredients so that you and your team will get hands-on experience and a wireframe strategy that will speed the development or refinement of your own business strategy.

How to Optimize Your In-House Agency (Half Day)
In this workshop, you will learn about three perspectives of common in house agency operational issues and you will learn about some of the warning signs of creative inefficiency and bad process. As a result, you will learn how to use best practices and solutions to drive better creative output and employee satisfaction.

How to Write A Single-Minded Proposition (Half Day)
The most difficult sentence to write on a creative brief is the Single-Minded Proposition. This workshop will dissect the inner workings of this simple but challenging sentence. You will come away with an insider’s understanding of how to craft a sentence that will ensure the two requirements of all advertising: creativity and ROI.

How to Write an Inspired Creative Brief (Full Day)
This engaging, interactive workshop is packed with individual and team exercises, and examples of exceptional creative briefs and creative work inspired by creative briefs. You’ll have lots of opportunities to evaluate creative work, deconstruct creative to deduce the creative brief and hone your briefing techniques. Quite simply, this course will help you better optimize the creative process to improve your marketing effectiveness, efficiency and ROI. In short, it will help you be a better client.

Insight-Based Marketing & Digital Communications Planning (Two Day)
In this workshop, you will learn how to marry the right data and insights into a digital marketing communications plan in a comprehensive way to improve UX, create loyal customers, and drive greater profitability.

Insight-Driven Customer Journey Mapping (Regional Half Day)
In this workshop, you will learn how using insights-driven Journey Mapping helps a company understand how well it is meeting its customer needs across the entire customer lifecycle (i.e., awareness/consideration, purchase, post-purchase, loyalty, and churn).

Integrated Marketing Around the Decision Journey (Full Day)
This workshop gives best practices on developing successful customer focused integrated campaigns. You will see examples of how companies use insightful CDJM’s to grow their brands. During this workshop, you will gain skills to develop a CDJM, including all the key elements that lead to campaign success: insightful buyer persona(s), mapped stages, strategic touch points, and integrated messaging.

Integrated Marketing Around the Decision Journey (Half Day)
This workshop focuses on three critical mapping elements: stages, touch points and messaging. You will see examples of how companies use insightful customer decision journey mapping to grow their brands.

Integrated Marketing Around the Decision Journey (Regional Full Day)
This workshop gives best practices on developing successful customer focused integrated campaigns. You will see examples of how companies use insightful CDJM’s to grow their brands. During this workshop, you will gain skills and on how to develop a wireframe CDJM that you may apply immediately to your own brand. Your CDJM toolbox will include key elements that lead to campaign success: insightful persona(s), mapped stages, strategic touch points, and integrated messaging.

Integrated Marketing Around the Decision Journey (Regional Half Day)
This workshop focuses on three critical mapping elements: stages, touch points and messaging. You will see examples of how companies use insightful customer decision journey mapping to grow their brands.

Journey Mapping your Customer Experience Design (Half Day)
In a world where commoditization is the norm, differentiation is key. The kind of differentiation customers will notice doesn’t come from what you say, it comes more from what you do. Customer Experience is a new discipline that helps you figure out what to differentiate and how to do it in a way that benefits your customers and your bottom line at the same time.

Leveraging Social Media for Brand Building (Half Day)
This workshop addresses these issues and takes you and your brand’s social media presence to the next level. It provides insights and best practices on the latest updates and features of the most widely used social marketing platforms, including Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, Pinterest, Twitter, and LinkedIn. You will gain understanding of the current demographic profile of each platform and review examples and case studies of what top performing brands are doing to optimize their social media efforts.

Managing Millennials for Optimal Productivity (Half Day)
Millennials have an entrepreneurial mindset. This dynamic half day workshop gives you the insights and best practices on understanding and managing this mindset so that you get maximum value out of your millennial talent.

Managing Multiple Agencies (Half Day)
In this workshop, you’ll gain a complete understanding of the pros and cons of each multiple agency operating model, and learn the frameworks, best practices, and tools you need to align your agency partners in a seamless fashion.

Marketing Analytics for Impact (Full Day)
This workshop builds this capability and helps you and your marketing organization progress toward more accurate, comprehensive, and insightful analytics. This interactive workshop will teach you how to confront these challenges and approach measurement that leads to improved marketing ROI.

Marketing Innovation (Full Day)
This workshop will help participants understand and drive innovation in their marketing programs. Through the use of team exercises, brainstorming sessions, and wall and flip charts, participants will be tasked with developing a strategy for a real marketing challenge. In the process, participants will generate ideas that the group can use to understand how the processes of innovation and creative problem solving can help the team.

Marketing Plan in a Day (Full Day)
This workshop will use a collaborative method that focuses on three key questions: Where are we now? Where are we going? How will we get there? By addressing these questions and populating the answers with sound marketing principles and an energetic process, participants will be able to build out a detailed, integrated working plan. Utilizing active exercises in plan outlining, facilitation, and focus on all key elements of the plan, the workshop will enable participants to create a plan and plan activation responsibilities in a single day.

Marketing Research (Full Day)
This high-energy, interactive workshop focuses on how to find and apply insights that can build competitive advantage. Utilizing both quantitative and qualitative techniques, participants will learn how to optimize current research efforts and understand alternatives that may work for their brands. Experiential learning and case studies are also used to teach participants theories and techniques. Participants will learn to recognize the customer’s voice and put that voice into action in their approach to business.

Mastering an Effective Creative Review (Half Day)
In this half-day intensive and interactive workshop you will learn reasoned insights into, and best-practice skills for reviewing creative work from your advertising agency or in-house creative department.

Mastering MarTech: How Modern Marketers Harness Technology (Full Day)
This workshop will help participants understand the essential components of a marketing technology strategy, and define how CMOs and other decision makers should engage in the technology roadmap.

Mastering MarTech: How Modern Marketers Harness Technology (Half Day)
This workshop will help participants understand the essential components of a marketing technology strategy, and define how CMOs and other decision makers should engage in the technology roadmap.

Measurement and Attribution (Two Day)
Understand the latest in accessing different types of marketing data, technology and processes – while learning the tools and techniques used to measure and attribute consumer behavior across marketing channels. Connect what you already know about relevant industry activities to your own organizational readiness for starting/improving such activities.

Media Strategy (Full Day)
This workshop is designed to elevate the participant’s comprehension and understanding of media in a manner that, if applied to their brand or service, will become part of their organization’s marketing DNA. Through the use of group exercises, real life examples, and case studies, participants will learn how to more tightly connect all aspects of the media planning process to their marketing while improving their overall comprehension of media language and concepts.

Multicultural "Sprint Planning" (Half Day)
This “Sprint Planning” workshop dives right into the process of working through strategically important plan elements to jumpstart your holistic Multicultural plan.

Multicultural Edge (Full Day)
This workshop is designed to provide you with a multicultural planning framework (Multicultural Edge) that helps you to tackle many of the more complex multicultural topics.

Optimizing Agency Relations (Regional Full Day)
This interactive course is designed to help you develop the skills of an effective client leader. It provides insights, tips, handouts and ample real-life examples on how to produce excellent collaborative work with one or multiple agencies.

Optimizing the Creative Process (Full Day)
Great creative work is the result of a successful collaboration between you and your external and/or internal agency partners. Your creative process can make or break whether you go to market with a big idea that builds your business or a small idea that lacks relevance and engagement. Successful collaboration needs the right people involved, in the right way, at the right time. While many clients think they have a streamlined, effective creative process, ANA studies show that agencies continue to voice concern.

Optimizing the Creative Process (Regional Full Day)
This workshop gives you all the best practices of an optimized creative process. You will gain vital skills for effective client side brief writing and understand industry best practices on how to provide an actionable client side brief for your agency(ies). You will learn how to give feedback on an agency creative brief as well as on creative concepts before they go into production.

Optimizing your Production Process and Spend (Half Day)
Learn about best practices as well as your optimal role and responsibilities in the production of content (TV/video, photography, OOH, digital/social, etc.). This workshop will increase your knowledge about what works, and it will improve your ability to develop better content integration.

Persuading the C-Suite Using Effective Data Presentation Techniques (Half Day)
This workshop teaches you as the analyst how to navigate expectations and present your data in a persuasive manner that aligns positively with business objectives.

Positioning Your Brand to Win (Half Day)
Taught by a seasoned brand strategist with both emerging brand and Fortune 500 experience, this workshop teaches you a step-by-step method along with a wide range of relevant case studies and fresh thinking to help you craft compelling positioning.

Post-Modern Customer Communications (Full Day)
We’ll address the key aspects you’ve got to be aware of to communicate effectively with this new language. We’ll practice different styles and voices, dive into “speaking like your audience,” and explore the internal approval process that impacts the way you get approvals for this—or any—audience. From newspeak to new platforms, we’ll take what you already know and give you additional tools to stay in tune with your customers and markets.

Post-Modern Customer Communications (Half Day)
The way human beings process information is changing. Along the way, the “rules of grammar” are falling by the wayside. The attention span of our customers is becoming woefully brief.

Practical Strategies to Effective Mobile Marketing (Half Day)
This workshop teaches the essentials of mobile marketing, what it takes to place mobile and connectivity at the heart of an organization’s marketing efforts. The workshop provides practical mobile marketing ‘how to’ tips and techniques, rather than simple theory.

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